The dose used for the control of wild dogs in DOGABAIT is 1000mg/bait and is a modest overdose for effective knockdown of any dog.
PAPP is highly toxic to dogs and foxes but much less toxic to most other species. However, there are some species that are more susceptible to PAPP than to 1080. 1080 has very low toxicity for goannas but they are vulnerable to the doses of PAPP used in both fox and dog baits. For this reason the label recommends that PAPP baits are not used when goannas are most active (summer) and that PAPP baits are not approved for aerial applications.
Quolls and bandicoots could also be vulnerable to baits containing PAPP, but studies have shown low uptake of buried manufactured baits by these native species. Independent environmental authorities have assessed that even if some individuals are lost during fox control programs, the impact on populations of quolls and bandicootsis low. Removing the predators that otherwise prey on these native species or compete for their food, is a greater benefit than the risk, so the balance of acceptable risk is in favour of using baits to control introduced predators.
Risks to non-target animals are further reduced by the burying or covering baits, which reduces access to baits by birds and small native mammals, while not impeding uptake by wild dogs.
Risks to non-target animals are further reduced by the burying or covering baits , which reduces access to baits by birds and small native mammals, while not greatly impeding uptake by wild dogs.
While action of PAPP is fast, death only occurs if sufficient quantities of the toxin are eaten and absorbed quickly. The DOGABAIT bait achieves this rapid delivery. However, if small amounts of bait are eaten slowly, this will allow time for detoxification mechanisms to work and haemoglobin levels will not become elevated sufficiently to cause death.
PAPP, like 1080, also degrades in the environment, though the breakdown rate for PAPP in baits is slower than for 1080 in baits. Breakdown depends upon soil temperature and moisture.
Indicative studies have shown that buried DOGABAIT® baits under field conditions retain lethal doses up to several weeks from deployment. This is longer than the 1 – 2 week period for 1080 baits to degrade in moist soil
For a description of how PAPP works as an active see: http://www.animalcontrol.com.au/PAPP01.htm
The levels of PAPP residue in a carcass are very low so sufficient tissue could not be eaten quickly enough to lead to secondary poisoning of any scavenging animal.
Any compound, that converts methaemoglobin back to normal haemoglobin can reverse the effects of PAPP, even if an affected animal is close to death. Response to treatment is immediate.
A common antidote to methaemoglobinaemia is methylene blue, when injected intravenously. Sterile methylene blue solution is commercially available as a human medicine and vets can purchase this product. A ready-to-use product for dog owners is not yet available.
An advisory package has been provided to all veterinarians and training is to be incorporated into new veterinary teaching programs.
Most large animal vets will already have supplies of methylene blue as it is used to treat nitrate/nitrite poisoning in cattle.
Emergency treatment regimes prepared by the Australian Veterinary Association include treatment recommendations such as the use of activated charcoal, oxygen supplements and post treatment monitoring.
As PAPP acts quickly it is imperative to intervene as quickly as possible in an emergency.
Typically, it will be necessary to get the affected nontarget animal to a vet within 30 minutes of ingesting a bait. This means that it may not be possible to administer the antidote fast enough in remote areas.
Fitting of muzzles or movement restraints on working dogs is important if they are near to a baited area.
Another feature incorporated into PAPP baits by ACTA is the inclusion of small plastic marker beads. These remain in the stomach or gut of an animal that is killed and can even be found in a long-decayed carcass.
The marker beads used in PAPP baits are yellow/orange whereas those to be used in 1080 bait manufactured by ACTA are red. If a dog is presented to a veterinarian and it can be made to vomit, the nature of the poison can be immediately determined by the colour of the beads.
Moreover, dogs that have become ill for other reasons, such as snake bite (a common cause of death in farm dogs), will have no beads present. This increases the ability of veterinarians to diagnose the correct course of treatment and will help overcome some false claims that pets or other wildlife have been killed by baits when there is another cause of death.
PAPP is synthesised from a precursor chemical called aniline, but its synthesis requires special conditions and releases corrosive by-products that can damage reaction equipment. Therefore PAPP is more expensive than 1080 to synthesise. Also, high doses of PAPP for dogs and foxes are required (400 or 1000mg PAPP per bait compared to 3 or 6 mg of 1080 respectively). Additionally the cost of gaining regulatory approval has been high. A royalty from sales will be returned to the IA-CRC and AWI to assist in further research into pest animal management.
DOGABAIT® Baits, in pails of 10 or 50 baits, are available only from traditional suppliers of 1080 baits in all states.
VIC: Department of Primary Industries
NSW: Rural Land Protection Boards
SA: Natural Resources Management Boards
QLD: Department of Natural Resources, Mines & Energy and Local Government Land Protection Officers
ACT: Department of Environment and Planning
Western Australia: Rural Merchants Licensed to retail S7 products
DOGABAIT® is also made available to Government Conservation Agencies and National Parks in most states for protection of native animals in Crown Land areas.
Animal Control Technologies (Australia) Pty Ltd
46-50 Freight Drive
Somerton, Victoria, 3062
Telephone +61 3 9308 9688
Fax +61 3 9308 9622